No Access Submitted: 10 October 2018 Accepted: 02 January 2019 Published Online: 17 January 2019
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A 37, 021506 (2019);
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  • Martin Magnuson
  • Lina Tengdelius
  • Grzegorz Greczynski
  • Fredrik Eriksson
  • Jens Jensen
  • Jun Lu
  • Mattias Samuelsson
  • Per Eklund
  • Lars Hultman
  • Hans Högberg
The authors investigate sputtering of a Ti3SiC2 compound target at temperatures ranging from RT (no applied external heating) to 970 °C as well as the influence of the sputtering power at 850 °C for the deposition of Ti3SiC2 films on Al2O3(0001) substrates. Elemental composition obtained from time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows an excess of carbon in all films, which is explained by differences in the angular distribution between C, Si, and Ti, where C scatters the least during sputtering. The oxygen content is 2.6 at. % in the film deposited at RT and decreases with increasing deposition temperature, showing that higher temperatures favor high purity films. Chemical bonding analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows C–Ti and Si–C bonding in the Ti3SiC2 films and Si–Si bonding in the Ti3SiC2 compound target. X-ray diffraction reveals that the phases Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 can be deposited from a Ti3SiC2 compound target at substrate temperatures above 850 °C and with the growth of TiC and the Nowotny phase Ti5Si3Cx at lower temperatures. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy shows epitaxial growth of Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 on TiC at 970 °C. Four-point probe resistivity measurements give values in the range ∼120 to ∼450 μΩ cm and with the lowest values obtained for films containing Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5.
The authors acknowledge funding from the Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linköping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU No. 2009-00971). M.M. acknowledges financial support from the Swedish Energy Research (No. 43606-1) and the Carl Tryggers Foundation (Nos. CTS16:303 and CTS14:310). P.E. acknowledges the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation through the Wallenberg Academy Fellows program. G.G. acknowledges financial support from the Åforsk Foundation (Grant No. 16-359) and Carl Tryggers Foundation (No. CTS 17:166). The authors acknowledge Åke Öberg at ABB Sverige AB for the target material and Uppsala University for access to the Tandem Laboratory.
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