Open Submitted: 28 August 2012 Accepted: 07 January 2013 Published Online: 07 February 2013
Biointerphases 8, 5 (2013); https://doi.org/10.1186/1559-4106-8-5
more...View Affiliations
View Contributors
  • Alex H-F Wu
  • Kenichi Nakanishi
  • KL Cho
  • Robert Lamb
Surfaces consisting of sub micron holes (0.420-0.765 μm) engineered into nanoparticle (12 nm) coatings were examined for marine antifouling behaviour that defines early stage settlement. Immersed surfaces were found to be resistant to a 5-hour attachment assay of Amphora coffeaeformis, a marine organism commonly found in abundance on fouled substrates such as foul-releasing paints and self-polishing coatings. Attachment inhibition was attributed to the accessibility of diatoms to the surface. This was governed by the size and morphology of trapped interfacial air pockets measured in-situ using synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering. Surfaces containing larger pores (0.765 μm) exhibited the highest resistance. Macroscopic wettability via contact angle measurements however remained at 160° and sliding angle of < 5° and was found to be independent of pore size and not indicative of early stage fouling behaviour. The balance of hierarchical nano/micro length scales was critical in defining the early stage stability of biofouling character of the interface.
  1. 1. MP Schultz, Effects of coating roughness and biofouling on ship resistance and powering, Biofouling 23(5), 331 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1080/08927010701461974. Google ScholarCrossref
  2. 2. MP Schultz, JA Bendick, ER Holm and WM Hertel, Economic impact of biofouling on a naval surface ship, Biofouling 27(1), 87 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2010.542809. Google ScholarCrossref
  3. 3. PR Willemsen and GM Ferrari, The use of anti-fouling compounds from sponges in anti-fouling paints, Surface Coatings International 76(10), 423 (1993). Google Scholar
  4. 4. T Suzuki, R Matsuda and Y Saito, Molecular species of tri-n-butyltin compounds in marine products, J Agric Food Chem 40(8), 1437 (1992) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00020a030. Google ScholarCrossref
  5. 5. MA Champ, A review of organotin regulatory strategies, pending actions, related costs and benefits, Sci Total Environ 258(1–2), 21 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00506-4. Google ScholarCrossref
  6. 6. A Abbott, PD Abel, DW Arnold and A Milne, Cost-benefit analysis of the use of TBT: the case for a treatment approach, Sci Total Environ 258(1–2), 5 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00505-2. Google ScholarCrossref
  7. 7. JA Callow and ME Callow, Trends in the development of environmentally friendly fouling-resistant marine coatings, Nat Commun 2, 244 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms1251. Google ScholarCrossref
  8. 8. I Banerjee, RC Pangule and RS Kane, Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms, Adv Mater 23(6), 690 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201001215. Google ScholarCrossref
  9. 9. AJ Scardino and R de Nys, Mini review: biomimetic models and bioinspired surfaces for fouling control, Biofouling 27(1), 73 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2010.536837. Google ScholarCrossref
  10. 10. X Cao, ME Pettitt, F Wode, MP Arpa Sancet, J Fu, J Ji, ME Callow, JA Callow, A Rosenhahn and M Grunze, Interaction of zoospores of the green alga ulva with bioinspired micro- and nanostructured surfaces prepared by polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer self-assembly, Adv Funct Mater 20(12), 1984 (2010) https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201000242. Google ScholarCrossref
  11. 11. CM Magin, JA Finlay, G Clay, ME Callow, JA Callow and AB Brennan, Antifouling performance of cross-linked hydrogels: refinement of an attachment model, Biomacromolecules 12(4), 915 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1021/bm101229v. Google ScholarCrossref
  12. 12. T Ekblad, G Bergström, T Ederth, SL Conlan, R Mutton, AS Clare, S Wang, Y Liu, Q Zhao, F D’ Souza, GT Donnelly, PR Willemsen, ME Pettitt, ME Callow, JA Callow and B Liedberg, Poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogel surfaces for antifouling applications in marine and freshwater environments, Biomacromolecules 9(10), 2775 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1021/bm800547m. Google ScholarCrossref
  13. 13. A Rosenhahn, S Schilp, HJ Kreuzer and M Grunze, The role of “inert” surface chemistry in marine biofouling prevention, Phys Chem Chem Phys 12(17), 4275 (2010) https://doi.org/10.1039/c001968m. Google ScholarCrossref
  14. 14. J Schumacher, M Carman, T Estes, A Feinberg, L Wilson, M Callow, J Callow, J Finlay and A Brennan, Engineered antifouling microtopographies - effect of feature size, geometry, and roughness on settlement of zoospores of the green alga Ulva, Biofouling 23(1), 55 (2007) https://doi.org/10.1080/08927010601136957. Google ScholarCrossref
  15. 15. ME Callow, AR Jennings, AB Brennan, CE Seegert, A Gibson, L Wilson, A Feinberg, R Baney and JA Callow, Microtopographic cues for settlement of zoospores of the green fouling alga enteromorpha, Biofouling 18(3), 229 (2002) https://doi.org/10.1080/08927010290014908. Google ScholarCrossref
  16. 16. AJ Scardino, H Zhang, RN Lamb, DJ Cookson and N Rd, The role of nano-roughness in antifouling, Biofouling 25(8), 757 (2009) https://doi.org/10.1080/08927010903165936. Google ScholarCrossref
  17. 17. AJ Scardino, E Harvey and R De Nys, Testing attachment point theory: diatom attachment on microtextured polyimide biomimics, Biofouling 22(1), 55 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1080/08927010500506094. Google ScholarCrossref
  18. 18. JF Schumacher, CJ Long, ME Callow, JA Finlay, JA Callow and AB Brennan, Engineered nanoforce gradients for inhibition of settlement (attachment) of swimming algal spores, Langmuir 24(9), 4931 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1021/la703421v. Google ScholarCrossref
  19. 19. AJ Scardino, J Guenther and R de Nys, Attachment point theory revisited: the fouling response to a microtextured matrix, Biofouling 24(1), 45 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1080/08927010701784391. Google ScholarCrossref
  20. 20. H Zhang, R Lamb and J Lewis, Engineering nanoscale roughness on hydrophobic surface-preliminary assessment of fouling behaviour, Sci Technol Adv Mater 6(3–4), 236 (2005) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stam.2005.03.003. Google ScholarCrossref
  21. 21. Algal biofouling, edited by LV Evans and KD Hoagland (Elsevier Science Publishers.1, Amsterdam (the Netherlands), 1986). Google Scholar
  22. 22. F Cassé and GW Swain, The development of microfouling on four commercial antifouling coatings under static and dynamic immersion, International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 57(3), 179 (2006) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2006.02.008. Google ScholarCrossref
  23. 23. PJ Molino, E Campbell and R Wetherbee, Development of the initial diatom microfouling layer on antifouling and fouling-release surfaces in temperate and tropical Australia, Biofouling 25(8), 685 (2009) https://doi.org/10.1080/08927010903089912. Google ScholarCrossref
  24. 24. KA Zargiel, JS Coogan and GW Swain, Diatom community structure on commercially available ship hull coatings, Biofouling 27(9), 955 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2011.618268. Google ScholarCrossref
  25. 25. KL Cho, AHF Wu, RN Lamb and II Liaw, Influence of roughness on a transparent superhydrophobic coating, J Phys Chem C 114(25), 11228 (2010) https://doi.org/10.1021/jp103479k. Google ScholarCrossref
  26. 26. AHF Wu, KL Cho, II Liaw, H Zhang and RN Lamb, Polymer-Based Smart Materials - Processes, Properties and Application, vol 1134. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, edited by S Bauer, Z Cheng, DA Wrobleski and Q Zhang (2009) p. 109. Google Scholar
  27. 27. ABD Cassie and S Baxter, Large contact angles of plant and animal surfaces, Nature 155, 21 (1945) https://doi.org/10.1038/155021a0. Google ScholarCrossref
  28. 28. H Zhang, RN Lamb and DJ Cookson, Appl Phys Lett (2007). Google Scholar
  29. 29. AJ Scardino, H Zhang, DJ Cookson, RN Lamb and R de Nys, The role of nano-roughness in antifouling, Biofouling 25(8), 757 (2009) https://doi.org/10.1080/08927010903165936. Google ScholarCrossref
  1. © 2013 Wu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.